Scroll down for:

- R installation instructions for PC’s and Macs.
- Links to running R online. Nothing to download or install.

**3 and 1/2 minute video introduction to using R**

In the above video I show you how to:

- use R to do basic arithmetic
- to calculate the average of the data x = 1, 5, 8, 6
- how to use the R console like a calculator
- how to work with and save R scripts

Here is the R script from the above video:

#R script to calculate mean of x x = c(1, 5, 8, 6) mean(x)

You can copy and paste the above into R. Don’t copy the line numbers 1, 2, 3 though!

Note here is how to calculate the average (or mean) of $x$ without using R:

$$ \bar{x} = \dfrac{\sum x}{n} = \dfrac{1 + 5 + 8 + 6}{4} = 5 $$

**About R**

In the real world, almost all statistical calculations are done on computers. In this course we will be using the program called R.

- R is powerful.

It is a state-of-the-art statistical computing environment used by statisticians, scientists, and businesses all over the world. It is one of the most commonly used environments for statistical analyses. - R is FREE and easy to install
- R is extremely easy to get started with
- It is easy to find answers to any question you might have about R by doing a Google search.

The R homepage is https://www.r-project.org/

**Download**

and

Installation Instructions for R

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Installation Instructions for R

R can only be installed on PC’s, Macs, and Unix (Linux) computers.

**You can’t install R on your cell phone, Android tablet, iPad, or Chromebook.**

- Go to the R download page: https://cloud.r-project.org/

- In the R download page click on the appropriate download link for your OS.
**Installation Instructions for Windows PC users.**

If you click on the**R for Windows**(because you have a PC) you will get a page that looks like:

Click on the “base” option. You will get a page that looks like:

Click on Download R… and download and install R. It is easy.**To run a line in an R script on a PC**put your cursor in the line you want to run then click Ctrl R. If you want to run the entire script, click Ctrl A and then Ctrl R.**Installation Instructions for Mac users.**

If you click on**R for Mac**you end up at a page that has the following download links on it:

You should install XQuartz first (if it is not already installed on your Mac). Reboot your Mac. Then install R.**To run a line in an R script on a Mac**do the following:

Highlight the line, then**command-enter**.

## How to use R online.

Nothing to download or install.

**Online R Compilers**

You can also compile (run) R online, for free, using your web browser, at the following sites:

The above sites were last checked March 2022. It they don’t work, you can find other free online R compilers by doing a Google search.

**Warning**. The above sites are not designed for processing data files. For that, you need to install R on your own computer (which is the best way to experience R). However, the above sites do allow you to use R from your tablet or cell phone.

Online Compilers that no longer seem to work.

- https://rdrr.io/snippets/

**Useful Links on using R**

- Histograms in R: https://www.datamentor.io/r-programming/histogram/
- Bar plots in R: https://www.rdocumentation.org/packages/graphics/versions/3.6.2/topics/barplot